As a sub-regional integration instrument, Mercosur has been used to implement important processes of harmonisation between Member States in areas such as intellectual property, agricultural policy and labour law. But the group is also plagued by internal conflicts. In 2004, Mercosur signed a cooperation agreement with the Andean Community Trade Bloc (CAN) and issued a Memorandum of Understanding for future negotiations on the integration of all of South America.  The prospect of greater political integration within the organisation, advocated by the European Union and supported by some, remains uncertain.  Bolivia, which was also a member of the CAN and an associate member of the Mercosur process before the start of the UNASUR process, plays a crucial role in relations, says Marion Huermann, with Bolivia traditionally seen as an intermediary between andean countries and the rest of South America. Regional integration: a key role for Bolivia The EU has bilateral partnership and cooperation agreements with Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Mercosur countries no longer benefit from the Generalized Preference System (GSP) because of their classification as a high-middle-income country. On 5 August 2017, the foreign ministers of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil said that Venezuela`s accession to Mercosur would be suspended indefinitely in response to the “break of the democratic order” in that country after the July 30, 2017 elections. The bloc`s statutes do not provide for expulsion.
However, trade and migration policy remains un changing in order to avoid a worsening of the social crisis.  Brazilian Foreign Minister Aloysio Nunes said Venezuela would remain suspended until the country “restores democracy.”  The EU is Mercosur`s trading and investment partner. EU exports to Mercosur amounted to EUR 41 billion in 2019 and EUR 21 billion in the services sector in 2018. The effective implementation of Mercosur will not affect the specific commercial areas of Manaus, Brazil and Argentina Tierra del Fuego, which are organized because of their particular geographical location. These two free trade zones will continue to operate normally until 2013. Mercosur was finally created in 1991 by the Treaty of Asuncion on the basis of the Buenos Aires Act, the Treaty of Asuncion set rules and conditions for the creation of a free trade area among its four signatories. Similarly, it was decided that all common market construction measures should be completed by 31 December 1994 with the amendment of the Treaty of Ouro Preto.  In 2001, the Mercosur flag was raised for the first time at Mercosur`s headquarters in Montevideo. In January 2019, the opposition-majority National Assembly annulled the re-election of Nicols Maduro in 2018 and entered a presidential crisis.  At a July 2019 summit in Santa Fe, Argentina, the bloc called for “free, fair and transparent presidential elections as soon as possible” in Venezuela.
The presidents of the four member states signed a statement expressing concern about “the serious crisis in Venezuela that is seriously damaging the humanitarian situation and human rights.”  Member States have pledged to do nothing to nationalise or expropriate investments in their territories that involve investors from the signatory states, unless these measures are taken on the basis of public needs. In this case, nothing discriminatory can be done, but everything must be implemented through a proper judicial procedure. Compensation for the expropriated or nationalized assetholder should be adequate and effective and be carried out in advance on the basis of the real value of the investment set at the time the decision was notified by the competent authorities. This payment is updated until the actual payment, and the investor concerned receives interest.